A year in review: 2022 - Our research group has worked very hard work over the last year, and it’s been nice to have such a great team as part of the Laboratory for Bioanalytical Spectroscopy in the CMR. It is fair to say that 2022 has been another strange year thanks to COVID-19. But it is good to think that this […]
Shwan – my first paper - Shwan’s open access paper tackles the important area of sepsis where Raman and infrared spectroscopy can be combined simultaneously to study bacterial infections at the single cell level. This is a really nice collaboration with our colleagues Enitan, Rachel and Christopher in the Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Liverpool. […]
Tai – My First Paper - Tai’s open access paper on metabolic fingerprint analysis of recombinant protein production in E. coli has recently been published. This is a really nice collaboration with our colleagues Naheed and Joseph in the University of Aberystwyth.Published in Frontiers in Microbiology Tai’s paper features in our Health and Life Science faculty’s #MyFirstPaper campaign. Find out more […]
Iva – My First Paper - Iva’s open access paper on the metabolomics of serum from COVID-19 patients for assessing disease severity and outcome that was published in Metabolomics features in our Health and Life Science faculty’s #MyFirstPaper campaign. Find out more here. Well done Iva! This will be her first of many impactful studies.
Analytical Methods Cover - Delighted that Mehrvash and Yun’s paper on “Rapid detection and quantification of the adulteration of orange juice with grapefruit juice using Handheld Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis” has been published in Analytical Methods and features in the front cover. Brilliant artwork from Howbeer. Detecting food adulteration has always been an important task for food safety, […]
Spring SciX Conference Report 2022 - Just before Easter in the University of Liverpool we hosted the Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Societies (FACSS) Spring SciX 2022 Conference.This was a 3-day international conference in which ECRs present their research with the aim of establishing career mentors for them.Please read the Spring SciX Conference Report 2022 by Dan, Sara and Tai.
mQACC and metabolomics standards - Standards and quality in metabolomics are vital. Read our latest Open Access paper on Reference materials for MS‐based untargeted metabolomics and lipidomics published in Metabolomics. A nice collaboration with the mQACC (metabolomics quality assurance and quality control consortium).
Dakshat starts his PostDoc - We are delighted to welcome Dakshat Trivedi to our group who started this month on a Unilever funded project to map the skin microbiome and metabolome.
Metabolomics and COVID - We are happy to announce that Iva’s paper on COVID with Doug Kell’s group has been published in Metabolomics. It’s all about metabolomics which has been used to discover potential prognostic markers of both severity and outcome.
A year in review: 2021 - 2021 was an important year for our biospec group and the CMR. Below are some highlights. We welcomed to biospec the following researchers: Dr Adam Burke as a PostDoc, and PhD students Shwan Ahmed, Afeefa Chaudhary, Cris Saladas, Amy Colleran, Amy McMullen as well as Phil Dutton and Sahand Shams with collaborators. We also welcomed […]
Congratulations Dakshat - Congratulations to Dakshat on passing his PhD today. Dakshat used metabolomics and vibrational spectroscopy for the analysis of human serum for the characterisation of phenotypically ageing men in different ethnic populations. In 2020 we had to do many vivas by Zoom and here’s a great photo that captures Dakshat’s success. Many thanks to Hyun Kim […]
2 PhD studentships available - If you are interested in joining our group we currently have two PhD positions available: Development of metabolomics for understanding antimicrobial resistance in mixed infections Understanding and dissecting microbial communities with Raman & IR spectroscopy These are fully-funded PhDs in the Institute of Integrative Biology (IIB) in the University of Liverpool. The close date for […]
Coconut Water and Food Security News - David and Howbeer on You and Yours: Our work on the detection of adulteration in cococnut water with Raman spectroscopy has recently featured on BBC Radio programme You and Yours. To read our paper in Food Chemistry The interview also dicusses counterfeit alcohol detection with spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) and you can read […]
Our work features in UoM In Abstract - We are delighted to see that our research work with Jon Lloyd and other colleagues in Earth and Environmental Sciences on algal colonization within a nuclear fuel storage pond which was published in mBio in June now features in The University of Manchester's In Abstract: Edition 06. In Abstract: Edition 06 You can read the […]
Many congratulations Dr Claire! - Many congratulations to Dr Claire Pickering for successfully defended her PhD on Thursday 9th August 2018. Claire's PhD is entitled "Development of rapid reagentless, in situ detection of biological threat agents and assessment and correction of the environmental conditioning on the vibrational spectrum". This was a DSTL funded PhD studentship and the primary supervisor […]
Paul’s first paper - Congratulations to Paul who has just had his first paper accepted on Raman spectroscopy applied to food security. Has been published in Food Chemistry: Richardson, P.I.C., Muhamadali, H., *Ellis, D.I. & *Goodacre, R. (2019) Rapid quantification of the adulteration of fresh coconut water by dilution and sugars using Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics. Food Chemistry 272, 157-164.
Happy Retirement Mark - Dr Mark H Barley retired from the group at the end of November after a varied and interesting career spanning 34 years in both industry and academia. After taking his Ph.D. in Chemistry at the University of British Columbia, followed by Post Doctoral research in North Carolina and Cambridge (UK) he joined the chemical company […]
Highlights from 2017 - 2017 has been a very successful year for our research group. Here are some highlights: We successfully graduate 7 PhD students. We are very proud of this and this is a record for our group and won't be beaten for some time. Congratulations to: Dr Neha Dhami (2017) Interference of central metabolism (TCA cycle) to […]
Well done Dr Mekhala! - Well done to Dr Mekhala Spencer who successfully defended her PhD on Thursday 7th December. Mekhala's thesis is entitled "The development of Raman spectroscopy for monitoring industrial biopharmaceuticals". This was a BBSRC CASE award with Pall and Mekhala was co-supervised by Prof. Alan Dickson. We are also very grateful to the examiners Dr Matt Baker […]
Analytical Chemistry Front Cover - We are delighted that our work with our collagues Profs Karen Faulds and Duncan Graham on multiplex bacterial detection features on the front cover of Analytical Chemistry Volume 89 issue 23 published today (5th Dec 2017). Read the paper here: Kearns, H., Goodacre, R., Jamieson, L., Graham, D. & Faulds, K. (2017) SERS detection of […]
Congratulation Dr Heidi - Congratulations to Dr Heidi Fisk who succesfully defended her PhD on Friday 1 December. Heidi's thesis is entitled "Raman Spectroscopy for the Direct Monitoring of Microbial Biotransformations". This was a BBSRC CASE award with GSK and Heidi was co-supervised by Prof. Jason Micklefield. You can read some of Heidi's work here: Fisk, H., Xu, Y., […]
Sniffing out lung infection - Research into breath volatile analysis of infection is growing rapidly within the last decade, particularly with concern over antibiotic resistance. Volatiles from pathogenic microbes and host metabolism can used as early markers of infection. Advances in standardised breath sampling and analysis strategies form a vital step towards early and accurate diagnosis. Interested in learning more? […]
Dr Robert – hoorah! - Congratulations Dr Robert Eendebak who succesfully defended his PhD (28 Sept). And especially so as this was with no corrections! The title of Dr Robert's PhD is "The potential relationships between hormone biomarkers and functional and health outcomes of ageing – a multinational longitudinal cohort study of ageing in men" and was funded by BBSRC.
Through-container detection counterfeit alcohol using SORS - Our latest Food Security research, published in Scientific Reports, is receiving considerable attention in the press and on social media. This work involves the through-container detection of fake spirits with a handheld SORS device, with collaborators from Cobalt Light Systems and the Scotch Whisky Research Institute (SWRI). We demonstrated that we could detect multiple chemical […]
Dr Ewa – congratulation - Congratulations! to Dr Ewa Szula who successfully defended her PhD today (14 September). Ewa's thesis was entitled "Metabolic profiling and imaging of CHO cells for fusion protein production" and was funded by the BBSRC's DTP scheme. Many thanks to Prof Malcolm Clench (Sheffield Hallam University) and Prof Sabine Flitsch (UoM) for examining.
We remember our friends in Manchester - We remember our city friends in Manchester and all those who have been affected by the Manchester Arena Bombing on 22 May 2017. Here is a truly inspiration poem about Manchester from Ryan Williams – via facebook
Double PhD success - Congratulations to Dr Chloe Westley and Dr Abdu Subaihi who were both awarded their PhDs on Thursday 11th May. A brilliant result and we wish you all the very best for your futures. Chloe's PhD was on Raman Spectroscopy and its Enhancement Techniques for Direct Monitoring of Biotransformations, and she was funded by the BBSRC. Abdu's PhD was […]
Nature Methods Paper - Delighted to have worked with Gary Siuzdak, Caroline Johnson and many other colleagues on this paper published in Nature Methods: Systems biology guided by XCMS Online metabolomics. Nature Methods 14 (2017) 461-462. Authors: Gary is based in Scripps Center for Metabolomics, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA Caroline along with Nik Rattray, who […]
Runner up Prize for 2017 Metabolomics - We are very pleased to have been awarded Runner up for the Best review award in the 2017 Metabolomics publication awards. Click here for the announcement. And read our article here: Rocca-Serra, P., Salek, R.M., Arita, M., Correa, E., Dayalan, S., Gonzalez-Beltran, A., Ebbels, T.M.D., Goodacre, R., Hastings, J, Haug, K., Koulman, A., Nikolski, […]
Happy New Year - We wish you a very prosperous, productive and most importantly peaceful 2017. The Laboratory of Analytical Spectroscopy – @BioSpecNet – believes that: "Every individual matters. Every individual has a role to play. Every individual makes a difference." This lovely quote we borrow from Jane Goodall
2016 in review - 2016 was another very successful year for our group. Some highlights below: 4 successful PhD defenses. Well done Najla, Jo, Neha and Ali we wish you all the very best for your future. Najla, Jo and Ali are now Lecturers. 4 Front covers in: Molecular BioSystems – Analyst – Metabolomics – Analytical Methods 34 Papers Published, including 5 […]
Movember - For Movember Roy is DYEING to change the face of men’s health. Please give generously to: http://mobro.co/goodroy
Well done Ali on your PhD - Congratulations to Ali who successfully defended his PhD yesterday (6th July). Dr Ali Sayqal’s PhD is on metabolomics for investigating drug and solvent stress on environmental bacteria. In particular Pseudomonas putida which included knockout in several important efflux pumps. Read about his work here: Sayqal, A., Xu, Y., Trivedi, D.K., AlMasoud, N., Ellis, D.I., Rattray, N.J.W. & […]
Fellow of Metabolomics Society - Roy is delighted to announce that at last week's Metabolomics Society meeting in Dublin he was made an Honorary Fellow of the Metabolomics Society. The award says that this is: "In recognition of your pioneering work in establishing the Metabolomics Society (Director 2005-2015) and establishment of the journal Metabolomics (2005) as the premier journal in the field. Your […]
Congratulations Jo on your PhD - Well done Jo! who successfully defending her PhD on Friday 6 May. Dr Joanne Denbigh's PhD is on metabolomics for investigating cancer dual drug therapy in cell line models and her primary supervisor is Dr Nick Lockyer. Many thanks to her examiners Prof Fiona Lyng (Dublin Institute of Technology) and Prof Andrew Doig. Here's a nice photo […]
Ali’s first paper - Congratulations to Ali Sayqal on the first research paper from his PhD being published in the open access journal Metabolites. Read all about it here: Metabolites 2016, 6(2), 14; doi:10.3390/metabo6020014
PhD for Najla - Congratulation to Najla for successfully defending her PhD on Friday 22 April. Dr Najla Almasoud's PhD is entitled ‘Rapid classification and differentiation of bacteria by analytical techniques’ Many thanks to her examiners Dr Raman Vaidyanathan (Sheffield) and Prof Sabine Flitch. Some tweets on her success – A Very Happy Najla – Congratulations Cake – Other Goodies […]
Double success at RSC Analytical Poster twitter conference - Congratulations to both Mekhala (Spencer) and Claire (Pickering) from our group who both won prizes at the Royal Society of Chemistry twitter poster day sponsored by the RSC journals Analyst, JAAS and Analytical Methods. Mekhala was the 1st winner and was awarded the RSC Analytical Biosciences Group prize. See the announcement on twitter. Claire was […]
Meat, the metabolites out now, as seen on Chemistry World! - Chemistry World has featured our paper entitled “Meat, the metabolites: an integrated metabolite profiling and lipidomics approach for the detection of the adulteration of beef with pork” which has just been published in Analyst. The paper published today with an artistic front cover, touches a very important issue in food safety – adulteration of beef […]
Kat wins award for best early career presentation - Congratulations to Kat Hollwood who recently won an award for best early career presentation at the 19th BRIC (Bioprocessing Research Industry Club) dissemination event in Ashford, Kent. Kat's prize is a full bursary to attend ESACT-UK 2017 (UK Society for Cell Culture Biotechnology) to present on her current postdoctoral work that is entitled – Application of […]
Food Review is Hot and Most Accessed - Hot articles and Most Accessed Analytical Methods articles of 2015 David’s review entitled ‘Point-and-shoot: rapid quantitative detection methods for on-site food fraud analysis – moving out of the laboratory and into the food supply chain’ has been recommended by referees as one of the HOT articles of 2015, and is also one of the top […]
Chloe’s First SERS paper - Chloe’s first SERS paper on skatole & androstenone quantification is published in Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Includes analysis of these boar-taint compounds from porcine fat. This is also a new collaboration with Klavs and Søren from the Department of Food Science at the University of Copenhagen. Read the paper here and find out more about Søren's […]
Back-to-back papers in Nature - Work by Drupad and Nik features in two back-to-back papers that are now online in Nature We are very proud to be associated with this work from Manchester Institute of Biotechnology and SynBioChem on novel enzyme and cofactor discovery. Read all about it here: White, M., Payne, K.A.P., Fisher, K., Parker, D., Rattray, N.J.W., Trivedi, D., […]
Metabolites 2nd Prize - Dlighted that our paper in Metabolites has been voted as the Second Best Paper Award for 2015. Gromski, P.S., Xu, Y., Kotze, K.L., Correa, E., Ellis, D.I., Armitage, E.G., Turner, M.L. & Goodacre, R. (2014) Influence of missing values substitutes on multivariate analysis of metabolomics data. Metabolites 4, 433-452 This is a real honour for the School of Chemistry […]
Prize for Najla - Delighted that Najla Almasoud from our group has been awarded first prize for her presentation at the PhD final year talks today in the School of Chemistry. Najla has done some excellent work on the development of bacterial characterisation with biophysical methods: with a particular focus on MALDI-MS of proteins and lipids. Read her first […]
Another success for Howbeer - It's like buses, or at least it seems that way with publications. Howbeer's second paper is out in Analytical Chemistry. He is joint first author with Malama who worked in the lab as an MSc Chemistry student last summer. This is also a first coauthorship paper for Abdu Subaihi. Congratulations all!!! The paper is entitled: Combining Raman […]
Howbeer’s first paper - Howbeer's first paper entitled 'Metabolic profiling of Geobacter sulfurreducens during scale-up' has been accepted in Applied and Environmental Microbiology. A very nice metabolomics study with biological validation of the findings. Interested? Read the accepted version here
PhD for Piotr - Congratulation to Dr Piotr who defended his PhD successfully yesterday. We look forward to seeing more of his chemometrics work in the future now that he is in Strathclyde. Nice tweet here with a picture. Piotr's Google Scholar page.
Junaied’s Nuffield placement - Junaied joined us from Rochdale Sixth Form College to complete his 4 week Nuffield placement over the summer. He completed a project investigating cell differentiation using Raman and FTIR spectroscopies. Last week he presented 2 posters detailing his work and was awarded a Gold CREST award. Junaied hopes to study medicine at university and greatly […]
Chloe’s BBSRC PIPS placement - Chloe Westley has recently returned from her PIPS placements and below is her summary: "As part of the DTP BBSRC PIPS scheme, I have been on a 3 month placement, part of which has been at Guru Magazine. Guru is a science lifestyle magazine offering current science content, primarily in the biology and medical sections, to […]
Robert’s Run in the Dark - Well done Robert Eendebak who completed the Manchester 10 km Run in the Dark Run in 38 minutes and 42 seconds. Robert came in 11th place out of 421 runners, and his run time can be seen here: http://www.chiptiming.co.uk/results/view/1564/230/
Letter in The Guardian - After Chris Elliott's Final Report into the Integrity and Assurance of Food Supply Networks was published earlier this week (4 September) read our Letter entitled "Food safety powers must have teeth" published in The Guardian on Saturday 6 September 2014 on p.37 here.
Research Associate Position in Metabolomics and Bioanalytical Chemistry is available in our group. - This project is an EU-funded position and is a collaboration with scientists at Manchester Institute of Biotechnology (MIB) and several other partners through Europe. The StrepSynth project aims to develop Streptomycetes as a new industrial production platform for high value added biomolecules. The position at MIB is to develop metabolic and flux mass spectrometry analyses […]
Research Associate Position in Informatics and Systems Analysis is available in our group. - This project is an ESRC-FSA-funded position and is a highly interdisciplinary collaboration with scientists at Manchester Institute of Biotechnology (MIB) and colleagues in the Centre for Criminology and Criminal Justice and the Manchester Business School. The project aims to develop and establish a predictive, transposable dynamic computational model that will outline nodes in a food […]
Spectromics Ltd website launched - Spectromics Ltd has launched its new web site – http://www.spectromics.com This is a Spin Out from Manchester University which is developing rapid diagnostics for the most judicious selection of antibiotics for fighting bacterial infections.
Omar’s first paper - We’re delighted that our paper on SERS of nicotine and its metabolites by Omar and Yun is a hot article in the Analyst. See their blog here and read our paper here. And hearty congratulations to Omar as this is also his first paper from his PhD.
Nagla’s first publication - We are delighted that Nagla AlMasoud's first primary research paper on bacterial characterisation with MALDI-TOF-MS has been published in Analytica Chimica Acta volume 840, pp. 49-57. Read all about it here.
Analyst Front Cover - Delighted that our work on multiple metabolomics methods for classifying bacteria appears on the front cover of the latest issue of the Analyst. Read all about it here. AlRabiah, H., Xu, Y., Rattray, N.J., Vaughan, A.A., Gibreel, T., Sayqal, A., Upton, M., Allwood, J.W. & Goodacre, R. (2014) Multiple metabolomics of uropathogenic E. coli reveal different […]
Most Read articles in Analyst - Our Critical Review ‘Illuminating disease and enlightening biomedicine: Raman spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool’ which is available here, appears on 2013's Top 25 most read Analyst articles and is the top critical review.
Happy 50th David - We wish David a very Happy 50th Birthday. Here he is enjoying his birthday celebrations:
Dr Alex - Well done Dr Alex! Delighted to let you know that Alexandria Naden successfully defended her PhD on 23 June.
Piotr’s first paper - We are delighted that Piotr Gromski's first paper has been published in Analytica Chimica Acta AND that it has been selected as the Featured Article and appears on the front cover of Volume 829. Read all about it here and see the cover here.
Heidi’s 10k run - Heidi is running the BUPA Great Manchester 10 km run for CRUK. We hope you’ll consider supporting her via JustGiving: https://www.justgiving.com/heidi-fisk.
Doctor Haitham - Well Done to Dr Haitham Alrabiah on successfully defending his PhD (3 April 2014). Nice photo with Dave Watson (his External) and Roy here
Phd for Dave - Congratulations to Dr Dave Cowcher for successfully defending his PhD today (24 Feb 2014). Nice celebratory photo here
PhD position available - A PhD position is available in this group. For more details click here. Title: Identifying metabolomic contributions to disease mechanisms in dwarfisms caused by extracellular matrix gene defects. Supervisors: Profs Ray Boot-Handford and Roy Goodacre Funding: Funding available for eligible UK/EU applicants.
Happy New Year - A very Happy New Year to all! And a very happy one for us too as today our first paper of 2014 is accepted in Molecular BioSystems: full list of group publications available here
Jo awarded top prize at SciX - Well done Jo! Jo goes one better and is awarded the joint First Prize for the SciX Student Poster Award. Presented at SciX 2013 held in Milwaukee last week. Here she is via twitter with a smile on her face and her certificate!
Jo wins SAS Award - Well done Jo from for being awarded the SAS Student Poster Award at SciX 2013. Tweet-link here for photo of award
Analyst Front Cover - David's review on Raman spectroscopy for 'Illuminating' disease and 'enlightening' biomedicine features as the front cover on the Analyst
Hot article in Analyst - David's review entitled 'lluminating disease and enlightening biomedicine: Raman spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool' with Dave, Lorna and Steve is just out in Analyst and is already a 'HOT Article'! Well done all.
Three Peaks Challenge - Dave and Nik and doing the Three Peaks Challenge this month for CRUK. A great challenge and I hope you'll support them via JustGiving.
Topical Issue in ABC - Topical issue on Metabolomics and metabolite profiling recently published Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 450(15); guest editors are Rainer Schuhmacher, Rudolf Krska, Wolfram Weckwerth, Roy Goodacre.
Welcome Abdu - We are very pleased to welcome Abdu Subaihi who has started his PhD this week in the group on chemical imaging.
Protein unfolding and Raman spectroscopy - Victoria's paper is in the latest issue of Analytical Chemistry and can be read here. This study details the developments of Raman spectroscopy for investigating protein unfolding in glycosylated versus glucan-free proteins.
Welcome Drupad! - Welcome to Dr Drupad Trivedi who started with us yesterday. Hope you have a productive time in Manchester.
Jo’s Manchester 10K challenge - Jo Denbigh is running the Manchester 10K and fund raising for The Christie. Good luck Jo and Dave (her running partner). Please support them here: http://www.justgiving.com/JoDandDaveB
DPA paper published - Dave's paper in Analytical Chemistry on detection of dipicolinic acid – as biomarker for spores – is now published. Read all about it here.
Congratulations Toria - Well done to Dr Victoria for passing her PhD viva. We wishing her all the very best with her new job.
Data fusion - Congratulations to Yun and Elon on your nice data fusion paper being recently accepted in Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Nice collaboration where data from volatile organic compounds and small molecules, both from meat spoilage, can be fused using multiblock principal components analysis and correlation analysis and Bayesian network analysis. The link to this paper will […]
2 more Raman papers in Analytical Chemistry - 2 more papers just accepted this year in Analytical Chemistry: one from Dave and Yun on developing SERS for spore detection with portable Raman; and the other from Victoria and Lorna on monitoring structural changes in proteins with Raman spec and 2D correlation analysis. Links to papers will appear here soon.
SERS and illicit materials - Two papers from Sam published this year on SERS for detection of illicit materials: the first on SERS of mephedrone used a fractional factorial design and published in Analytical Chemistry; the second entitled '2p or not 2p: Tuppence-based SERS for the detection of illicit materials' is in Analyst and also features as the inside front cover.
High-throughput phenotyping of E. coli - Well done to Haitham on his first paper from his PhD being published in Analyst.
Metabolomics Special Issue Published. - Metabolomics Special Issue on mass spectrometry published - read all about it here.
Congratulations Dr. Lindsay! - Well done on a successful PhD defense!
RAMAN Spectroscopy Studentships - If you want to join the group there is a BBCRC PhD studentship on Raman spectroscopy available. More details here.
Congratulations - Congratulation to Dr Clare Levene on a very successful PhD viva, we wish her all the best with her new PostDoc within Nigel Scrutton’s group.
Congratulations! - Congratulation also to Dr Nik Rattray who recently graduated with a PhD from Life Sciences and a big well done to Victoria Brewster for winning the best postgraduate talk in Chemistry.
FT-IR Paper - Alginate quantification from bacterial cultures using FT-IR spectroscopy just published in Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry.
SERS Paper - Well done Sam Mabbott on his first paper published in Analyst. It’s about ‘galvanic replacement of silver onto copper for SERS’ and is also highlighted as a Hot Article in Issue 12.
Review: Fingerprinting Food - Also great new for David Ellis on his latest review on ‘fingerprinting food’ being accepted in Chemical Society Reviews. Link will appear here soon to the online article.
MALDI-MS Paper - Congratulations to Nicoletta Nicolaou and Yun Xu – paper on ‘MALDI-MS for quantification of food spoilage’ just accepted in Analytical Chemistry. Read all about it here.
Multiblock PCA Tutorial - If you want to learn all about multiblock PCA why not read Yun Xu’s recent tutorial in a Data Analysis special issue in Metabolomics.
New Members - Welcome to the new members of the group who joined us in 2012: Dr Nik Rattray and PhD students Nagla Almasoud, Jo Denbigh and Ali Sayqal.